Thursday, May 24, 2018

The "Better" of Ecclesiastes Helps Us Read Proverbs

I recently finished teaching through Ecclesiastes for the second time. As I taught through it, I appreciated anew the spiritual depth to which this work leads us, and how vital its wisdom is for living as God’s covenant people this side of Genesis 3. In fact, I asserted over and over that Ecclesiastes is an expansive meditation on Genesis 3:17-19. Much of how I taught Ecclesiastes stayed the same as when I went through it with a different congregation five years ago. There is one aspect to Ecclesiastes, however, that I realized this time around was key to a proper understanding of biblical wisdom, and, in particular, the book of Proverbs.

The element of Ecclesiastes to which I am referring is the concept of “better.” It’s just “good” in the Hebrew (טוֹב), but “gooder” has never taken root in the English language, despite the best efforts of all of us in the first years of learning the language.

Ecclesiastes opens with the statement הֲבֵל הֲבָלִים, variously rendered “absolute futility” (CSB, the translation I’m using in this post), “meaningless! Meaningless!” (NIV), “everything is meaningless” (NLT), and, most popularly, “vanity of vanities!” This is the seemingly senseless repetition of the days of our lives that is all undone and must be done again, over and over. It is the reality that “what is crooked cannot be straightened” (1:15), and that it is God Who has done the twisting (7:13). The cursing of creation in Genesis 3:17-19 (see also Romans 8:20) set up the comprehensive and total frustrating of every human being on the face of the earth. Human beings were created to “rule” (Genesis 3:26) and “subdue” (3:28) creation, but, after the Fall, God caused creation to resist and war against human beings. To live in this world is to live frustrated. All that we do is temporary and must be endlessly done again. Having just moved to southwest Missouri from southwest New Mexico, the “absolute futility” for my family is mowing. By the time we finish mowing the property, we already see signs that we will need to be mowing again very soon. It must be done, but there is no endurance to the results of our effort. And God is the One Who has decreed it.

Believe it or not, this “absolute futility,” this twisting of all creation to fight against beings made to subdue creation, is an act of grace.

If all done “under the sun” wasn’t endlessly futile, I wouldn’t seek an eternal satisfaction in the only One Who can provide that for me. If, after the Fall, the creation yielded perfectly to me, I would create a substitute heaven here, and wouldn’t long for the one created for me in eternity by my Jesus.

My frustration here for a few brief moments of life is promised to be utterly eclipsed because of the re-making that Christ will bring about.

But, as a child of God in Christ, I am still in this world, still daily moving through this “absolute futility.” How then shall we live? The answer of the wisdom works of the Bible is found, at least in part, with the idea of “better.”

“There is nothing better for a person than to eat, drink, and enjoy his work. I have seen that this is from God’s hand” (Ecclesiastes 2:24).

“I know that there is nothing better for them than to rejoice and enjoy the good life” (3:12).

“I have seen that there is nothing better than for a person to enjoy his activities because that is his reward” (3:22).

Better is one handful with rest than two handfuls with effort and a pursuit of the wind” (4:3).

“Two are better than one because they have a good reward for their efforts” (4:9).

Better is a poor but wise youth than an old but foolish king who no longer pays attention to warnings” (4:13).

Better than you do not vow than that you vow and not fulfill it” (5:5).

“A good name is better than fine perfume…” (7:1a).

“It is better to listen to the rebuke from a wise person than to listen to the song of fools” (7:5).

“…a live dog is better than a dead lion” (9:4b).

“Wisdom is better than strength” (9:16a).

“Wisdom is better than weapons of war” (9:18a).

There are plenty of other verses that carry a similar idea without using the language. While we cannot undo the twisting of creation, we are nonetheless called to daily attempt to bring it into order (we can’t help it…it’s hard-wired into us). Ecclesiastes is written by “the Teacher, son of David” (1:1), who concludes that all true wise “sayings are given by one Shepherd” (12:11). The book begins and ends leading us to the final “the Son of David,” Jesus Christ, Who is also our “Teacher” and “Shepherd.” How do we walk through this world as citizens of another without falling into a paralyzed fatalism?


With “better” are not promises of “best” or the total undoing of “absolute futility”; in fact, there are no this-world promises at all with “better”! As the people of God in this twisted world, though, it is “better” for us to live in obedience to God’s wisdom than otherwise. Will we still have to deal with the consequences of living in this “absolute futility”? Yes. Ask Job. But following the Lord’s Spirit-given wisdom in the Scripture is “better” than doing otherwise.

Here’s what I realized this time around in Ecclesiastes: this doctrine of “better” helps us rightly read Proverbs. We tend to read Proverbs as a series of iron-clad promises. Wisdom literature doesn’t speak in iron-clad promises, though. Wisdom literature speaks honestly and deeply about living as God’s children in a fundamentally messed-up world. We are called to the “better” of God’s wisdom, recognizing that everything will fall apart on a daily basis, and that all things in this world are temporary.

I can give one illustration: “Start a youth out on his way; even when he grows old he will not depart from it” (Proverbs 22:6). How many parents do we know that did all they could to bring up children “in the training and instruction of the Lord” (Ephesians 6:4) only to see them wander as far away from it as possible? How many, reading Proverbs 22:6 as some sort of guarantee, therefore beat themselves up because of feelings they must have failed, given the result?
When we plug the “better” of Ecclesiastes into our reading of Proverbs, something helpful happens.[1] The world cursed by sin doesn’t go away, but a way of living “better” than eating thorn sandwiches appears. It is God’s way in Christ, Who is the fullness of God’s wisdom (1 Corinthians 1:24,30; Colossians 2:2,3). If trusting Jesus exempted us from a daily living in the “absolute futility,” it wouldn’t be long before we would decide we didn’t need him, heaven, or a resurrection. Instead, we are reborn by faith in Jesus Christ, but still find ourselves beating back the thorns in a million areas in our lives. But we do it, not only because we can’t help but do it, but because we are doing it in Christ, Who leads us to push back briars in a way “better” than the world does it.

There is a beautifully hopefulness in this way: the “better” of today in Christ among the thorns will one day be eternally transformed into the infinitely, unimaginably “best” in Him. I can’t wait. But, until then, may we day-by-day continue on in this “absolute futility” walking in Jesus in the “better” that He has mapped out for us in this world.

[1] For occurrences of “better” in Proverbs, read 3:14; 8:11,19; 12:9; 15:16,17; 16:8,16,19,32; 17:1; 19:1,22; 21:9,19; 22:1; 25:7,24; 27:5,10; 28:6. Beyond just the actual instance of the word itself, I hope you see the principle I’m driving at!

Friday, May 4, 2018

Reading Proverbs 4 in Jesus

Let me offer a few principles on reading Proverbs 4 in light of the Gospel of Jesus Christ.

The Old Testament points us to the fullness of the New Testament’s revealing of Jesus. All reading of the O.T., in other words, should lead us to the N.T. and its unveiling of God’s fullness in Christ His Son.

The O.T. Law points us to the perfection and wisdom of God revealed in Jesus (Matthew 12:42//Luke 11:31; 1 Corinthians 1:24,30; Colossians 2:2,3).

The O.T. promises of long earthly life point us to eternal life in Jesus. O.T. material blessings/promises are sacramental, representing the eternal and spiritual blessings realized in Christ. For example, the “land” promises to Abraham (Genesis 12:1; 15:7,18-21; 17:8) pointed Abraham to the true inheritance they represented: a city built by God Himself in a heavenly country (Hebrews 11:9,10,13-16).

The O.T. passing of God’s wise truth to the next biological generation points us to the New Testament’s passing of God’s wise truth in Jesus on to the next spiritual generation (which includes and surpasses in scope the biological). Life comes through the passing on and receiving of God’s Word (Romans 10:14-17).

The O.T. command to obey and live is revealed in the New Testament to be the fruit and evidence of a life lived by faith in Jesus (Hebrews 5:9).

“Hear, O sons, the instruction of a father,
And give attention that you may gain understanding,
For I give you sound teaching;
Do not abandon my instruction
[תֹּֽורָתִי, “my Law”].
When I was a son to my father,
Tender and the only son in the sight of my mother,
Then he taught me and said to me,
‘Let your heart hold fast my words;
Keep my commandments and live;
Acquire wisdom! Acquire understanding!
Do not forget nor turn away from the words of my mouth.
Do not forsake her, and she will guard you;
Love her, and she will watch over you.
The beginning of wisdom is: Acquire wisdom;
And with all your acquiring, get understanding.
Prize her, and she will exalt you;
She will honor you if you embrace her.
She will place on your head a garland of grace;
She will present you with a crown of beauty.’
Hear, my son, and accept my sayings
And the years of your life will be many.
I have directed you in the way of wisdom;
I have led you in upright paths.
When you walk, your steps will not be impeded;
And if you run, you will not stumble.
Take hold of instruction; do not let go.
Guard her, for she is your life.
Do not enter the path of the wicked
And do not proceed in the way of evil men.
Avoid it, do not pass by it;
Turn away from it and pass on.
For they cannot sleep unless they do evil;
And they are robbed of sleep unless they make someone stumble.
For they eat the bread of wickedness
And drink the wine of violence.
But the path of the righteous is like the light of dawn,
That shines brighter and brighter until the full day.
The way of the wicked is like darkness;
They do not know over what they stumble.
My son, give attention to my words;
Incline your ear to my sayings.
Do not let them depart from your sight;
Keep them in the midst of your heart.
For they are life to those who find them
And health to all their body.
Watch over your heart with all diligence,
For from it flow the springs of life.
Put away from you a deceitful mouth
And put devious speech far from you.
Let your eyes look directly ahead
And let your gaze be fixed straight in front of you.
Watch the path of your feet
And all your ways will be established.
Do not turn to the right nor to the left;
Turn your foot from evil”
(Proverbs 4:1-27).

Reading Proverbs 4 in light of the whole Bible requires three levels of meditation:
1. I cannot live Proverbs 4 perfectly and will inevitably “stumble” because I am a son of Adam, inheriting the “spiritual DNA” of rebellion against God. I own it fully. Christ lived Proverbs 4, and all of God’s Law, perfectly. By faith in Christ His perfect righteousness is credited to my account and I am, now and forever, right before God by faith in His Son’s accomplished work alone. I deserve eternal and just punishment from God for my rebellion against His Law; Jesus paid that price in full on the cross in my place. His righteousness in perfectly living Proverbs 4 is credited to my account by faith in Jesus, and He paid the price for my rebellion against the principles of Proverbs 4.
2. The temporal and material promises/blessings of the Old Testament are typological (they point forward to a future reality), leading us to eternal and spiritual blessings in the heavenly land, sharing truth forward with spiritual children in the faith. When I read the promises of long life in Proverbs 4, I know the fullness is eternal life through faith in the Son. The temporal of the O.T. points to the eternal in the N.T. of Christ.
3. By the indwelling power of the Spirit, Who is mine by faith in Christ, I am desirous and empowered to live out the commands of Proverbs 4 as I am being conformed to the image of the Son of God.

Reading Proverbs 4 without the fullness of God’s revelation in the Person and work of Jesus Christ is, at best (and it’s a damning “best”), moralism. At its worst it is a devil-religion, anti-Gospel and conforming to the false creed of the world since the Fall: work hard, do good, and you will be blessed now and forever. Don’t read without the Gospel. Don’t read without Jesus.